(An Islamic Perspective) Hoax in Social Media: A Destructive Provocation for Societal Peace

Mohammad Mohiuddin, PhD Coordinator (English Programs), Islamic Economics Association Faculty of Sharia’h and Islamic Studies, Kuwait University mahiiiumissc@gmail.com…

Mohammad Mohiuddin, PhD

Coordinator (English Programs), Islamic Economics Association

Faculty of Sharia’h and Islamic Studies, Kuwait University





Social media has become one of the key important tools of people’s lives worldwide. The impact of social media is nowadays seen in every aspect of the people individually, socially, economically and politically. The primary expectation from social media is serving people and society by providing absolute and true important news, information and happenings. But unfortunately, the fake news, rumours and fabricated information on social media have become a threat to individuals, and destructive tool to societal peace and harmony. A lot of social unrests and problems may occur because of the uncontrolled range of hoax in social media, where people and society demand a brotherly and peaceful coexistence through social media. This is a qualitative descriptive research that aims an Islamic understanding on the spread of hoax in social media for the personal gain or political interest.

Keywords: Hoax, Social Media, Social Unrest, Personal interest.



The internet has a remarkable influence in the communication technology and in the electronic media in this advanced world. Its undoubtedly true that the internet provides unlimited benefits and facilities to the people to interconnect globally and to ease their technological tasks. Thus, the social media has become one of the essential tools of the people’s need with the help of internet, which is playing currently a crucial role in communication technology globally. The Social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, WhatsApp, YouTube and so on seems more influential, dominant and attractive nowadays than the mainstream media like traditional and conventional channels such as print media, TV, Radio, and etc.

As the technology has proven its merit, people are more likely comfortable in using social media for their personal affairs, social issues and political purposes. To stay connected with families and friends; and to create new friendships and platforms, the individuals are operating the social media. The civil society, governmental, non-governmental or semi-governmental organizations’ contribution to change the landscape of the world of communication through their growth of the use of social media networks is proved now at the global stage. And that’s an outstanding positive impact of the social media on the advanced world.

On the other hand, internet based social media is facilitating its users with uncontrolled freedom and spaces which is leading the people to use it for personal unjustified gain politically. The range of mislead of the freedom of speech and the freedom of intellects have been recently increased significantly worldwide, and most of the countries are suffering from hoax in social media. Individuals are committing crimes by spreading falsehood and fake news to gain their personal illegal demand, which is an absolute barrier to the stability of the society. The political communicators, the fake intellectual users, and the fabricated news agents are eager to achieve their own interests through social media. The society is observing now that many of them use the social media as the influential medium of their communication to attract and provoke mass people. The spread of slander, hoax, and fake information to shape the people’s concern has reached to a worrying issue now, which is leading to uncertainty, panic and instability in the society.

The peaceful and harmonious society is always the demand of Islam. Islam teaches a beautiful standard to assess the behaviour of the individuals and the community. The revelation (Qur’Én) and the teachings of Prophet (PBUH) ordered the Individuals to enhance some moral obligatory characteristics to build themselves within the Islamic ideology, which will have impact in making a beautiful and peaceful community. Thus, the spread of hoax, lies, slander and provocation which aims to destroy the peace of the people and society is strictly forbidden in Islam.

Hoax, lies and slander from Islamic Perspective:

The globalization has introduced an own atmosphere and social life connection in corporation with the internet. People can share quickly their information, views, opinions easily which can also be spread faster. This is the reason why all the sectors such as academic, social, religious, cultural and political are very much influenced by the social networks which has a huge impact positively and negatively. Thus, the information or news is sometimes implosive and explosive because of the possibility of the copy and share options in social media. (Ratna Istriyani & Nur Huda Widiana, 2016). The hoax, fake news, the falsehood and the provocation cannot be separated from the emergence of the development of the communication technology that changed communication tools to be faster and easier for the people, which structured a new life management called global village. (Jay W Jensen Rivers & Theodore Peterson, 2008).

The researcher specifically used a thematic approach to understand the verses of the Holy Qur’Én and teachings of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) related to hoax, lies, fabricated news and provocation. The ethical characteristics stated in Islam should be followed to counter the spread of hoaxes, lies and provocation. An individual who practices the behavioural lessons of Islam, will never get involved in harming others or to put the society in an unrest situation, for the personal privilege. The Islamic ethics require acquisition and proper evaluation, and only then can share or disseminate any information or news. Allah SWT said in the Holy Qur’Én:

]وَلَا تَقْفُ مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِۦ عِلْمٌ إِنَّ ٱلسَّمْعَ وَٱلْبَصَرَ وَٱلْفُؤَادَ كُلُّ أُولَـٰٓئِكَ كَانَ عَنْهُ مَسْـُٔولًا[

“And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge. Indeed, the hearing, the sight and the heart – about all those [one] will be questioned.” (Qur’Én, 17:36).

Those who believe in monotheism, are bounded within Islamic ethical framework; they believe in oneness of Allah who is the Sole Master and Creator. They will be asked by Allah hereafter about their actions and deeds. So, a believer does not act without acquiring proper knowledge and without a truthful investigation in afraid of being accountable for their wrongdoings. The individual responsibilities and societal relations are also guided by the fundamental principles of Islam to enjoin good and to forbid evil. This is considered as the ‘accountability’ as stated in the Holy Qur’Én:

]وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى ٱلْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِٱلْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ ٱلْمُنكَرِ  وَأُولَـٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ[

“And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong,1 and those will be the successful”. (Qur’Én, 3:104).

The deep concern that has been raised now on the dissemination of unlimited hoaxes, lies, fake news and provocation in social media to deceive people, or to play trick on someone, or to make people believe in specific fabricated news or false information. Whatever act, document or artifact intended to deceive the public is considered as a hoax. (Emery 2004). Some individual users of social media are taking this trick either to make joke on somebody or to pull down someone else for their personal interest. And the most worrying issue is that, the agencies or the news platforms especially electronic media channels are being used by the people of falsehood and hoaxes in return of money; where the maliciously fake information or fabricated news is being published intending to be viral on social media to bring the counterpart down or to provoke mass people. The both; the channels and the people of falsehood or hoax are involved in this type of serious crimes where mass people are being in provocation; some of them are also spreading the fake news without a proper investigation or justification, which is undoubtedly destroying the peace and the image of the victims.

The major factor in spreading hoaxes or fake news is uncontrolled freedom to issue news to shape the people’s opinion for the purpose of certain interests including political or religious or individual. Mostly, the hoaxes or fake news are being published to slander, to harm, and to accuse others or to claim that the specific people or platforms are superior than the others. So, whoever involves in issuing or spreading such unauthentic or unjustified news and information for personal interest, commits serious sins that leads to the punishment of Allah. For those who create or initiate such fabricated news or hoaxes, they definitely commit the sin of lie or slander which is completely forbidden in Islam. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ نُمَيْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، وَوَكِيعٌ، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا أَبُو كُرَيْبٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الأَعْمَشُ، عَنْ شَقِيقٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ r:‏ “‏عَلَيْكُمْ بِالصِّدْقِ فَإِنَّ الصِّدْقَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْبِرِّ وَإِنَّ الْبِرَّ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَمَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَصْدُقُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الصِّدْقَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ صِدِّيقًا وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَالْكَذِبَ فَإِنَّ الْكَذِبَ يَهْدِي إِلَى الْفُجُورِ وَإِنَّ الْفُجُورَ يَهْدِي إِلَى النَّارِ وَمَا يَزَالُ الرَّجُلُ يَكْذِبُ وَيَتَحَرَّى الْكَذِبَ حَتَّى يُكْتَبَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ كَذَّابًا”‏.‏

Abdullah reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:

“It is obligatory for you to tell the truth, for truth leads to virtue and virtue leads to Paradise, and the man who continues to speak the truth and endeavours to tell the truth is eventually recorded as truthful with Allah, and beware of telling of a lie for telling of a lie leads to obscenity and obscenity leads to Hell-Fire, and the person who keeps telling lies and endeavours to tell a lie is recorded as a liar with Allah.” (SahÊh Muslim, 2607).

عن أبي هريرة، y أن رسول الله r قال‏:‏ “آية المنافق ثلاث‏:‏ إذا حدث كذب، وإذا وعد أخلف، وإذا أؤتمن خان‏”‏ ‏(‏‏‏متفق عليه‏)‏.‏

Abu Hurairah (May Allah be pleased with him) reported:

Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “There are three signs of a hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he betrays his trust.” (Sahih al-BukhÉrÊ, 33. TirmÊdhÊ, 2631).

Based on the study of above Hadiths, it’s clear that the lie, slander and fabrication are the signs of hypocrite and evil doers, which obscenity leads to Hell-Fire. Thus, AllÉh SWT warns us to publicise or broadcast any evil.

 “لَّا يُحِبُّ ٱللَّهُ ٱلْجَهْرَ بِٱلسُّوٓءِ مِنَ ٱلْقَوْلِ إِلَّا مَن ظُلِمَ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ سَمِيعًا عَلِيمًا”

“Allah does not like the public mention of evil except by one who has been wronged. And ever is Allah Hearing and Knowing”. (Qur’Én, 4:148).

The key Arabic term in this verse, ‘al-jahr’, means “publicising or broadcasting,” and the term sū’, means “evil comment, evil speech”. Thus, this verse warns to issue any kind of evil news, speeches or comments; and this is agreed by Mohammad Hashim Kamali. (Kamali, 167). And similarly, Allah SWT ordered us to stay away from committing any disgraceful deeds or wrongdoings.

]قُلْ تَعَالَوْا أَتْلُ مَا حَرَّمَ رَبُّكُمْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَلَّا تُشْرِكُوا بِهِ شَيْئًا وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ مِنْ إِمْلَاقٍ نَحْنُ نَرْزُقُكُمْ وَإِيَّاهُمْ وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلَا تَقْتُلُوا النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ إِلَّا بِالْحَقِّ ذَلِكُمْ وَصَّاكُمْ بِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ[

“Say, Come, I will recite what your Lord has prohibited to you. [He commands] that you not associate anything with Him, and to parents, good treatment, and do not kill your children out of poverty; We will provide for you and them. And do not approach immoralities – what is apparent of them and what is concealed. And do not kill the soul which Allah has forbidden [to be killed] except by [legal] right. This has He instructed you that you may use reason.” (Qur’Én, 6:151).


The Arabic term ‘fawāhish’ in these verse in this context commonly denotes for adultery and fornication, however, linguistically the term used for ‘indecent or disgraceful deeds, impure acts, or everything goes beyond proper limits. Sayyid Qutub thought the same. (Al-Mawdūdī, 1:5990), (Sayyid Qu ̇tb, 5:357).

For those who spread hoaxes or fake news without proper justification, also commit serious crimes according to Islamic ethics. This unjustified acts or deeds surely take part of lies, fake news and slander to be viral on social media, which is against the Islamic behavioural ethics. Spreading hoaxes and fake information about anybody or slandering someone is a defamation. Allah SWT orders Muslim to prevent themselves from insulting, harming and defaming others. (Ibn Kathīr, 330). The Holy Qur’Én said:

]إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَوْمٌ مِنْ قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَنْ يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاءٌ مِنْ نِسَاءٍ عَسَى أَنْ يَكُنَّ خَيْرًا مِنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الِاسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَتُبْ فَأُولَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ[.

“O, you who have believed, let not a people ridicule [another] people; perhaps they may be better than them; nor let women ridicule [other] women; perhaps they may be better than them. And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. Wretched is the name [i.e., mention] of disobedience after [one’s] faith. And whoever does not repent – then it is those who are the wrongdoers.” (Qur’Én, 49:11).


Lets remember the incident of Ayesha when she was defamed and suspected by several Muslims without any valid evidence in Madina, and Ayesha complained to Allah SWT which was heard and answered by Allah, and He criticised and refuted those who defamed Ayesha, the wife of the Prophet (PBUH).

]إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاءُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِنْكُمْ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَكُمْ بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ مَا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّى كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ[

“Indeed, those who came with falsehood1 are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather, it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof – for him is a great punishment [i.e., Hellfire].” (Qur’Én, 24:11).


During the regime of Prophet (PBUH), some hypocrite and bad people used to spread untrue news and misinformation in Madina that caused to destroy peace in Muslim and in community. (SabËni, 1:292). They continued to create doubts, initiate false rumors and spread propaganda to exploit Muslims, and to weaken the Madina state. (S.M Hasan al-Banna: 2007). Allah SWT described their hoaxes and disgraceful deeds by revealing the Qur’Énic verse as follows:

]وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُوا بِهِ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَى أُولِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ لَعَلِمَهُ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَنْبِطُونَهُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ لَاتَّبَعْتُمُ الشَّيْطَانَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا[

“And when there comes to them something [i.e., information] about [public] security or fear, they spread it around. But if they had referred it back to the Messenger or to those of authority among them, then the ones who [can] draw correct conclusions from it would have known about it. And if not for the favor of Allah upon you and His mercy, you would have followed Satan, except for a few.” (Qur’Én, 4:83).


Based on the verses, none of Muslims is allowed to initiate or publicise hoaxes, falsehood and fake news. As the signs of disobediences and hypocrisy, such indecent activities will surely take the doers to the punishment of hellfire.  Therefore, Islam designed some ethical guidelines and principles that Muslim need to be enlightened with, which will prevent anybody from wrongdoings or evil.

Firstly, avoiding suspicion and reassumption, which is worse of lie and falsehood. Allah SWT and the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) warn the believers and ordered to stay away from suspicion. The Holy Qur’Én says:

]يَا أيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَآ تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَآ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أيُحِبُّ أحَدُكُمْ أن يَأكُلَ لَحْمَ أخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ[.

“O you who have believed, avoid much [negative] suspicion. Indeed, some suspicion is sin.” (Qur’Én 49:1). And the Prophet said:

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، حَدَّثَنَا وُهَيْبٌ، حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ طَاوُسٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ r:‏ “‏إِيَّاكُمْ وَالظَّنَّ فَإِنَّ الظَّنَّ أَكْذَبُ الْحَدِيثِ، وَلاَ تَحَسَّسُوا، وَلاَ تَجَسَّسُوا، وَلاَ تَبَاغَضُوا، وَلاَ تَدَابَرُوا، وَكُونُوا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ إِخْوَانًا”‏‏.

Narrated by Abu Huraira: Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “Beware of suspicion, for it is the worst of false tales and don’t look for the other’s faults and don’t spy and don’t hate each other, and don’t desert (cut your relations with) one another O Allah’s slaves, be brothers!” (Sahih al-Bukhari, 6724. Sahih Muslim, 2563).


Secondly, one of the initial causes of creating or spreading hoaxes, lies and provocation is mockery. Laughing at someone or making joke on anybody is prohibited in Islam. Allah emphatically prohibits it; asks to remember that perhaps those whom we mock might actually be better than us.

]يَا أيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَآ يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَی أن يَكُونُوا خَيْرًا مِّنْهُمْ وَلَآ نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَی أن يَكُنَّ خَيْرًا مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَآ تَلْمِزُوا أنفُسَكُمْ وَلَآ تَنَابَزُوا بِالْألْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَاُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ[.

“O, you who have believed, let not a group of people mock [other] people; perhaps they may be better than them; nor let women mock [other] women; perhaps they may be better than them. And do not insult one another and do not call each other by [offensive] nicknames. Wretched is the name of shamelessness after [one’s] faith. And whoever does not repent – then it is those who are the wrongdoers.” [Qur’Én 49:11].

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ إِدْرِيسَ، عَنْ دَاوُدَ، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي جَبِيرَةَ بْنِ الضَّحَّاكِ، قَالَ فِينَا نَزَلَتْ مَعْشَرَ الأَنْصَارِ ‏(وَلاَ تَنَابَزُوا بِالأَلْقَابِ‏) قَدِمَ عَلَيْنَا النَّبِيُّ r:ـ وَالرَّجُلُ مِنَّا لَهُ الاِسْمَانِ وَالثَّلاَثَةُ فَكَانَ النَّبِيُّ r رُبَّمَا دَعَاهُمْ بِبَعْضِ تِلْكَ الأَسْمَاءِ فَيُقَالُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ يَغْضَبُ مِنْ هَذَا‏.‏ فَنَزَلَتْ ‏(وَلاَ تَنَابَزُوا بِالأَلْقَابِ)‏.‏

It was narrated that Abu JabÊrah bin DahhÉk said: (Allah’s saying) “Nor insult one another by nicknames (Surah Al HujurÉt 49:11)” was revealed concerning us, the Ansar. When the Prophet(ﷺ) came to us, a man among us would have two or three names, and the Prophet(ﷺ) might call him by one of those names, only to be told: “O Messenger of Allah(ﷺ), he does not like that name.” Then: “Nor insult one another by nicknames.” was revealed.” (Musnad Ahmad, 18288. Sunan Ibn Majah, 3741).



Thirdly, respecting the privacy of others is one of the basic principles of the Islamic family and societal ethics. Nobody is allowed to break the privacy of others. Islam prohibits from entering in the houses of others without permission, consent and proper greetings, and that a fine manner for Muslims. The Holy Qur’Én says:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّى تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَى أَهْلِهَا ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ. فَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدُوا فِيهَا أَحَدًا فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهَا حَتَّى يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ وَإِنْ قِيلَ لَكُمُ ارْجِعُوا فَارْجِعُوا هُوَ أَزْكَى لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ[.

“O you who believe! do not enter houses other than your own until you have asked permission and greeted the inmates . . . and if it is said to you, ‘Go back’, then go back.” (Qur’Én, 24:27-28)

]يَا أيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَآ تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَآ يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا أيُحِبُّ أحَدُكُمْ أن يَأكُلَ لَحْمَ أخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ[.

“O you who believe! avoid most of suspicion (against others), for surely suspicion in some cases is sin; and do not spy (into other people’s affairs), nor let some of you backbite others.” (Quran, 49:12)


What we can understand from the verses is that, breaking of the privacy of others, spying on anybody and backbiting others are strictly forbidden in Islam and whoever commits these would be considered as the big sin and surely be punished by Allah SWT. And these verses indicate that, trying to ensure any suspicion or slander is also against the Islamic ethics. Baig writes:

“the right to privacy is a sacred human right which nobody (including the journalist) can violate … [and] in the pursuit of good, Islam does not permit, not even to a journalist, to spy and seek to confirm suspicions, slander, circulation of rumour, and name calling.” (Baig: 2008).


Fourthly, to investigate and justify any information or news prior to publishing or spreading that. Examining the authentication of any news or information is compulsory for a Muslim before believing in that, which will prevent him/her from publicising or spreading hoaxes, fake news or slander. The Holy Qur’Én stated:

]يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِنْ جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَنْ تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ[

“O you who have believed, if there comes to you a disobedient one with information, investigate, lest you harm a people out of ignorance and become, over what you have done, regretful.” (Qur’Én 49:6).

The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) warns us not to speak of everything that we hear, which indicates that the investigation or justification is a must before informing others. The Prophet (PBUH) said:

“It is enough lying for a man to speak of everything that he hears.” (Sahih Muslim).




A fine manner is taught by Islam for all believers, how to live in a society, how to cooperate with others and how to ensure the peace of people. The morality and Islamic fundamental principles aim a pure and peaceful existence from every individual. And that is why Allah SWT asserts the boundaries of living and the guidelines to purify the hearts of the individuals and the sickness of the society. To tell a lie, to publicise slander, to spread fake news, disrespecting other’s rights to privacy, and to spread hoaxes are the absolute immoral and indecent deeds, and also they are the signs of hypocrisy that is threatened to be painfully punished by Allah SWT.

]انَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَنْ تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ[.

“Indeed, those who like that immorality should be spread [or publicized] among those who have believed will have a painful punishment in this world and the Hereafter. And Allah knows and you do not know.” (Quran, 24:19).

So, Muslims must be careful in receiving any news or information, or in carrying out their daily activities. Islam emphasizes that, anything should be received or publicised after a proper verification of sources, and authenticity of that. Otherwise, the acts will be considered as the disgraceful deeds that will harm others, and will cause the destruction of peace and harmony in society.

















Ratna Istriyani & Nur Huda Widiana. (2016). Etika Komunikasi Islam dalam Membendung Informasi Hoax di Ranah Publik Maya. Jurnal Ilmu Dakwah, 36 (2). P. 296.

Jay W Jensen Rivers & Theodore Peterson. (2008). Media Massa dan Masyarakat Modern. (H. Munandar, Trans.) Jakarta: Kencana.

Emery, D. (2004) “What is a Hoax,” Retrieved March 1, 2004 from http://urbanlegends.about.com/cs/urbanlegends/f/hoax.html.

Sahih Muslim, 2607. (Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Thurath al-Arabi, Vol. 4, 2013).

Sahih al-Bukhari, 33. (Dar Touq al-Najat, Ed. 1, Vol: 1). P. 16.

Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 2631. Al-Jami’ al-Kabir, Vol. 4, P. 315.

Sahih al-Bukhari, 6724. (Dar Touq al-Najat, Ed. 1, Vol: 8). P. 148.

Sahih Muslim, 2563. (Beirut: Dar Ihya al-Thurath al-Arabi, Vol. 4, 2013). P. 1985.

Musnad Ahmad, 18288. (Muassasah al-risalah, Ed. 1, Part, 30, 2001). P. 221.

Sunan Ibn Majah, 3741. (Dar Ihya al-Kutub al-Arabiyyah, Part 2). P. 1231.

Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Freedom of Expression in Islam (Leicestershire, UK: The Islamic Foundation, 1997). P. 167.

Sayyid Qu ̇tb, Fī Z.ilāl al-Qur’ān (Cairo: Dār al-Shurūq, 1996), Vol. 5; Sayyid Qu ̇tb, In the Shade of the Qur’ān: Fī Z. ilāl al-Qur’ān, Adil Salahi, ed. and trans. (Leicester: The Islamic Foundation, 2006). P. 357.

Abū al-‘Alā al-Mawdūdī, Tafhīm al-Qurān (Lahore: Maktabat Ta‘mīr Insāniyyāt, 1974). 1:599

Ibn Kathīr, Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr, trans. Muh. ammad Jūna Garhī (Lahore: Maktaba Qudusīyya, 2006). P. 330.

Muhammad Ali Sabuni, Safwat al Tafsir, (Beirut: Dar-al-Qur’Én, Vol 1, 1981). P. 292.

S. M. Hasan al-Banna, The Sirah of the Final Prophet, (Awakening Publications, UK, 2007). P. 89.

Sahih al-Bukhari 6724. In Book reference: Book 85, Hadith 2. English reference: Vol. 8, Book 80, Hadith 717.

Khalid Baig, “The News Protocol: Towards an Islamic Framework” http://www.albalagh .net/general/journalism.shtml (2001), accessed July 25, 2008.

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